New published study points out adjusting solar-induced fluorescence to nadir-viewing provides a better proxy for GPP

Solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) provides key information for inferring terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). However, there is little research on analyzing the performance of nadir-adjusted SIF (SIFnadir) on GPP, compared to total SIF emitted by all leaves (SIFtotal) for reducing the viewing angle effects and estimating GPP. Besides, there have been controversial opinions on whether SIFtotal is better correlated to GPP than raw SIF observations (SIFobs). Here we systematically analyzed the relationship between raw/nadir/total SIF (i.e., SIFobsSIFnadir and SIFtotal) and GPP and investigated the underlying mechanism, using multi-angular field measurements and eddy covariance data in wheat and corn crops at sub-daily scale. We further compared the performance of SIFobsSIFnadir and SIFtotal in estimating GPP using the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) SIF and concurrent AmeriFlux measurements at daily scale. The results indicate that diurnal SIFnadir has stronger correlations to GPP than SIFobs for field measurements, with the increase of mean coefficient of determination (R2) by 0.05–0.07 for far-red band and 0.11–0.20 for red band. SIFnadir shows comparable performance with SIFtotal for both far-red and red bands. Although the viewing angle effects dominate the difference in estimating GPP between SIFnadir and SIFobs, the correlation between light use efficiency (LUE) and fesc further determines the different performance of SIFnadir and SIFtotal in estimating GPP. TROPOMI-based analysis further confirms that SIFnadir overall has higher correlations to AmeriFlux GPP than SIFobs for different plant functional types and shows similar performance with SIFtotal. Compared to SIFtotal, the estimation of SIFnadir independent of viewing angle effects does not require any canopy structure parameters, and thus offers promising potential for reliably estimating regional and global GPP.

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